Ottmar Sirch und Carsten Hoff with co-operation of 106 co-authors 2014, 502 pages., 376 pictures, 34 charts, ISBN: 978-3-8169-3264-2
Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicles are entering the worldwide automotive market and the expectations are that by the middle of this decade there will be a wide range of established OEMs as well as newcomers offering these kinds of vehicles. Forecasts from several market research institutes project a significant increase of annual growth in volumes and revenues. According to ZSW (Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden- Württemberg), the number of registered electric vehicles worldwide has increased at an annual rate of more than 100% over the last three years. At the beginning of 2012, nearly 100,000 of the cars were on the roads worldwide. This sum rose a year later to a total of 200,000, and then again to 405,000 units earlier this year. ZSW projects that, if growth increases at the same rate, there will be more than 1 million electric vehicles on the road by the beginning of 2016. This tally does not include motorcycles, trucks, buses and the now more than 6 million conventional full-hybrid vehicles. The US, Japan and China are leading the market, according to the analysis, followed by France, Holland, Norway and Germany. Japanese and US automotive groups are the leading providers, assisted by strong market incentive programs in their countries. Nissan is the top-seller, followed by GM/Opel and Toyota; Tesla is accelerating rapidly. The batteries for the xEVs come mainly from Japan and South Korea, ZSW noted .
After a period of several years which was dominated by Toyota´s hybrids a lot of major players launched their xEVs onto the market and announced strategic approaches to cover a wide spectrum of electric vehicles and to meet the requirements for the next generation products in terms of technical characteristics, costs, production and aftersales. Experts for all product areas – e.g. motors, power electronics and energy storages – have been employed during the last years either in the automotive industry as well as other related branches and are working intensively together to provide appropriate concepts. Analyzing different OEMs we see different approaches for the challenging xEV market: The Volkswagen Group’s MQB modular platform is one of the four main modular toolkits (modulare Baukästen) of the Group: the MQB (transverse), the MLB (longitudinal), the MSB (standard drive), and the NSF (new small family). The platforms standardize many vehicle component parameters across brands and vehicle classes, while at the same time offering access to new technologies, such as alternative drive systems. The new Mark 7 Golf, which is MQB-based, offers gasoline, diesel, natural gas, plug-in hybrid (the GTE), and battery-electric (the e-Golf) versions, all of which can be manufactured bumper-to-bumper on the same assembly line. The MQB spans the A0 to C segment .
The Ford Motor Company, in conjunction with GE, will supply electric vehicle charging stations at Ford facilities nationwide, beginning with facilities in and around its headquarters in Detroit. Ford will begin installing the GE WattStation Level 2 charging stations across its North American campuses, developing a workplace charging network at nearly every Ford facility in the United States and Canada using the new charging network, Ford employees commuting to their jobs from up to 21 miles away in plug-in hybrid vehicles – Fusion Energi and C-MAX Energi – may be able to drive entirely on electric power to and from work. Fusion Energi and C-Max Energi have EPA-estimated MPG ratings of 44 mpg US city, 41 highway and 43 combined and have an EPA-estimated range of 21 miles (34 km) electric. Drivers of the electric-only Focus Electric, which has an EPA-estimated range of 76 miles (122 km) on a full charge, will have even more gas-free commuting potential. The Ford charging service will be free to employees for the first four hours of charging each day. By offering free charging, Ford is trying to encourage charging station sharing, enabling twice as many employees to charge at work for free. Ford is also asking employees to use the MyFord Mobile smartphone app to collect driving and charging information to help the company understand driving patterns and potentially influence future product design.
Ford estimates it will cost about 50 cents to fully charge each vehicle. Ford’s WattStation charging station units will be connected together. As a result, the company will be able to gather comprehensive information on electrified vehicle use, such as the number of hours vehicles are charging and the amount of carbon dioxide reduced. It can then use actual station data to plan for additional station installations. Ford plans to install electric vehicle charging stations at more than 60 of its offices, product development campuses and manufacturing facilities. The installation will begin at Ford’s southeast Michigan facilities and roll out across other facilities throughout 2014.
Beside these activities the efforts to improve fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines are an ongoing process. New approaches for energy management, highly sophisticated operating strategies and new technologies are being researched and developed and will be applied soon. These technologies are combined to new powerful systems which are capable of fulfilling the CO2 targets as well as the requirements for new features. Alternatively to today´s established 12 Volt, 48 Volt is establishing itself as a new vehicle power supply voltage, which increases the capability of the conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines in terms of electric power for new features, recuperation, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions to improve its position in the competition with xEVs. The market potential for a 48 V power supply has been evaluated by a number of parties including institutes, OEMs and suppliers. The results show significantly rising volumes in the second half of this decade.
Forecasts in analysts’ figures show a significant market share for 48 Volt beyond 2020. Additionally, for 2025 market research predicts that more than 30% of all vehicles will have an electrified powertrain.
The book in hand was created for the 3rd conference “Electric & Electronic Systems in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles and Electrical Energy Management” organized by Haus der Technik e.V. Essen May 6th and 7th, 2014, in Bamberg. Subjects and articles about the overall system of electrics/electronics of hybrid and electric vehicles and concepts of electrical energy management will be presented and discussed in detail. Solutions for hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles and E/E architectures, charging systems, power electronics, and low voltage accumulators will be covered.
We want to thank all the authors and speakers whose interesting technical contributions support the edition of this book. Furthermore, we thank Mr. Bernd Hömberg and his staff from Haus der Technik e.V. in Essen for planning and organizing the event, Mrs. Anita Koranyi and Mr. Matthias Wippler from expert-Verlag in Renningen for publishing the book and Mrs. Dr. Vera Lauer, Mr. Dirk Balzer, Mr. Prof. Dr. Ludwig Brabetz, Mr. Prof. Dr. Stephan Frei, Mr. Friedrich Graf, Mr. Prof. Dr. Hans-Georg Herzog, Mr. Dr. Jan Lichtermann, Mr. Dr. Marc Nalbach, Mr. Dr. Dieter Polenov, Mr. Dr. Hartmut Pröbstle, Mr. Dr. Tomas Reiter, Mr. Prof. Dr. Dirk-Uwe Sauer, Mr. Peter Schmitz and Mr. Richard Schöttle for their support and engagement in the program committee.
Bamberg, May 2014
Ottmar Sirch Dr. Carsten Hoff