The presented propulsion concept targets the market between the 48 volt starter generator systems and high voltage hybrid systems. The demonstrator vehicle has an attractive cost/benefit ratio and increases its significance by the usage of a manual gearbox. In order to enable both CO2 savings and good drivability, in a holistic approach, a high power density gasoline engine has been combined with a 48 volt P2-hybrid system. The low end torque of the internal combustion engine is enhanced by an electric torque support allowing for an effective downspeeding. The central component of the P2 system is a hybrid module that provides an increased regeneration potential and an optimized operating strategy which enables a decrease in CO2 emission. The P2 system is in particular characterized by an axial-parallel arranged e-machine that is connected with the powertrain and an air conditioning compressor via a belt drive. Other ingredients include an automated drive clutch „K1“ and another clutch „K0“ for the decoupling of the combustion engine from the powertrain. The opportunity to offer an electric air conditioning without additional costs and moreover purely electric driving at low speeds are two of the most attractive functions of this P2 hybrid electric vehicle. With the e-drive option in particular the basis for automated parking is set also with manual transmissions. Finally the possibility of a comfortable engine start with the 48 volt e-machine, similar to a starter generator system, is maintained. Various maneuvers are considered and compared in a standard drive cycle with regards to functionality and drivability. Especially the experience of electric driving is assessed for this 48 volt P2 hybrid vehicle. Crucial for the success of this new concept is a completely new 48 volt P2-focused drive strategy and an energy management system that provides the foundation for the discussed 48 volt based functionalities.
Autor: Dr. Stefan Lauer
Friedrich Graf (Dipl.-Ing.), Continental, Regensburg;
Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Springer, Ford Werke GmbH, Cologne;
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Stefan Wechler, Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co.KG, Herzogenaurach
Electromobility is a promising way of locomotion for eco-conscious, future-oriented users. The popularity of electrically powered vehicles increases. Manufacturers offer innovative concepts and promise their customers to reduce the operation and energy costs by buying their products. However, it is difficult to find your way in the growing but still limited supply of vehicles and drive concepts. The Smartphone application described in this article is aimed at those people who have an interest in purchasing an electric or hybrid vehicle, but are not able to verify themselves which kind of car on the market fits to their needs. The application is to help them take their user-specific handling characteristics, to evaluate and to provide an appropriate overview of vehicles from different manufacturers on this basis. The data is recorded during a trip with a conventionally powered vehicle. The app uses the built-in smart sensors and interfaces such as GPS and accelerometer. The data is collected over an individually selected period of time during each trip and allows conclusions on the driving behavior of the user. A recorded track includes altitude, acceleration and velocity profiles which help to estimate the individual energy consumption of each track. By optionally entering charging facilities at the end of each trip it is stated weather and how the vehicle can be charged. After of using the App for several days or even longer, the analysis processes of the data can be performed. The result given is an overview of various electric and hybrid vehicles, which fulfill the energy requirements of previously recorded tracks. The algorithms of the program do not only consider the details of the manufacturer and the declared range by NEDC but also consider inclines, the velocities and the acceleration behavior of the user, which have an impact on the energy demand and thus the range of the vehicle. Thus, the application provides a decision aid, which does not rely only on the static comparison of estimated values, but rely on real measurements and therefore offer individual results.
Autor: Philip Dost
Co-Autoren: Christoph Degner, Constantinos Sourkounis
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Opel bringt das neue Elektrofahrzeug Ampera-e 2017 auf den Markt. Das kompakte Fahrzeug bietet eine sehr grosse elektrische Reichweite von bis zu über 500 km (NEDC) und dynamische Fahrleistungen mit sportlichen Beschleunigungswerten. Das Paper wird den elektrischen Antrieb und die Optimierungsschritte insbesondere bei der Batterietechnologie in der Entwicklung aufzeigen. Dabei werden auch Vergleiche zu vorangehenden Elektrofahrzeugmodellen wie z.B. dem Chevy Spark (erhältlich in USA) aufgezeigt. Die Elektrische Antriebseinheit, bestehend aus permanent erregter elektrischer Synchronmotor, Reduktions-Getriebe sowie Fortschritte des Antriebsumrichters werden im Details vorgestellt. Das Fahrzeug bietet die Möglichkeit zur Wechselstromladung und Gleichstromladung mit dem CCS Ladestecker. Die Schlüsselkomponente der deutlichen Reichweitenerhöhung ist das Batteriesystem im Unterboden des Fahrzeuges. Hier werden die Anforderungen und das Konzept und Design beschrieben: Schnelleres Laden, lange Lebensdauer, hohe klimatische Unterschiede und geringe Kosten, die hier zusätzlich erreicht werden müssen. Weiterhin wird der erreichte Fortschritt der Batterietechnik im Bereich HEV, EREV (PHEV) und BEV und ein Vergleich der System untereinander aufgezeigt. Zum Abschluss werden die erreichten Fahrleistungen des neuen Opel Ampera-e dargestellt.
Autor: Manfred Herrmann
Co-Autoren: Markus Demmerle, Roland Matthé
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The evolution of complexity in automotive electric/electronic systems for forthcoming autonomous driven vehicles shows the need of re-thinking architectures, specially focused on modularity and scalability for cost-efficient vehicle implementations. In order to build actually safe and secure autonomous driven vehicles, three main aspects need to be considered: firstly, there is a clear demand for enhanced computational capabilities and communications in order to support the real-time execution of more and more sophisticated control algorithms. Secondly, a communication between the autonomous driving cars to the environment like pedestrians and other non-autonomous driving cars is needed. Finally, reliable and ultra-efficient power supply innovations fulfilling the demand of highly available and fail-safe E/E systems should be developed. In this paper, we examine the different trends for future E/E systems and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each. Also, a possible timing / roadmap is explored.
Lear is one of four suppliers with global capability in providing complete automotive electrical distribution systems for traditional electrical architectures as well as emerging high-power and hybrid systems. We expect electrical content growth in vehicles to be above the rate of industry growth by approximately 5% per year for the foreseeable future reflecting macro industry trends. This content growth will require far more complex vehicle electrical architectures. To succeed in this segment, companies must be able to design and manufacture highly integrated and standardized architectures that optimize size, performance and quality. Software capability will remain a key differentiator due to the increasing complexity resulting from feature content growth and architecture sophistication.
Autor: Dr. Antoni Ferré
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Today´s modern vehicle energy distribution networks have high requirements with regards to both boardnet stability and power availability. Even though 48V systems are emerging slowly, the industry´s main focus is still on 12V applications. The ongoing electrification and addition of new features drives both common energy storages and system architectures to their limits. In the last few years, many architectures were developed to encounter the typical problems of the increasing number of high-power consumers. These architectures use DC/DC converters and/or multiple energy storage devices to ensure voltage stability and also increase energy regeneration to reduce fuel consumption. The main challenge is to develop a solution which provides both reliable electrical performance over a wide temperature range and, most importantly, cost efficiency. In order to optimize electrical performance, a hybrid energy storage, based on a standard 12V lead-acid battery and a 15V ultracapacitor module, were evaluated. A LN3 AGM battery is used as a reference and is a common choice in modern start-stop vehicles. Starting with an extensive simulation study carried out by a well-known European system house, the initial configuration went through several iteration loops to optimize and streamline the design. The main focus was set to cranking performance of various starter devices; comparing standard starters with enhanced starters and belt-driven starter generators. Cold cranking and warm cranking was evaluated in the temperature range of -30°C to +65°C. Based on the simulation results, an optimum energy storage solution was configured. A 12V LN3 AGM battery was used as a reference. The goal of the program is to define and design an energy storage solution with equivalent or improved performance. Cold-cranking, self-discharge and charge acceptance tests were conducted in our laboratories to compare the behavior of the new prototypes and the reference batteries. The resulting 12V hybrid energy storage shows similar performance to a comparable AGM battery, which combines a 40Ah LN0 enhanced flooded lead-acid battery and a corresponding ultracapacitor module with 320F, packaged in a standard form factor. The new combination can enable additional high-power features like start-stop operation at lower temperatures, active suspension, e-steering or even electrical turbo chargers. The experiments are still running and will be completed until eehe takes place in 2017.
Autor: Stefan Werkstetter
Co-Autor: Dr. Priya Bendale
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